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Pass theory is basically rooted in the work of A.K.Luria which is based on the functional aspects of brain structures.

According to A.K. Luria – “Human cognitive functions can be conceptualized within a framework of three separate but related ‘’functional units’’ that provide four basic psychological process- PLANNING, ATTENTION, SIMUTANEOUS AND SUCCESSIVE.

Description of the Three Functional Units-

The function of the first unit provides regulation of cortical arousal and attention, second codes information using simultaneous and successive processes and the third provides for strategy development, strategy use, self- monitoring and control of cognitive activities.

According to Luria, the first of these three functional units of the brain, the attention-arousal system, is located primarily in the brainstem, the diencephalon and the medial regions of the cortex. This unit provides the brain with the appropriate level of arousal or cortical tone, as well as instructive and selective attention. When a multidimensional stimulus range is presented to a person who is then required to pay attention to only one dimension, the inhibition of responding to other stimuli and the area of attention to only one dimension depend on the resources of the first functional unit.

The second functional unit is associated with the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes posterior to the central sulcus of the brain. This unit is responsible for receiving, processing and retaining information the person obtains from external world. This unit involves simultaneous processing and successive processes. The third functional unit is associated with the prefrontal areas of the frontal lobes of the brain. This unit provides for the programming, regulation and verification of behavior such as asking questions, solving problems and self- monitoring. As well as the third functional unit include the regulation of voluntary activity, conscious impulse control and various linguistic skills such as spontaneous conversation. The third functional unit provides for the most complex aspects of human behavior including personality and consciousness.

Three Functional Units And PASS Theory-

Planning is a frontal lobe function. More specifically, it is associated with the prefrontal cortex and main abilities that distinguishes humans from other primates. Simultaneous processing is necessary for organization of information into groups. Attention is a mental process that is related to the orienting response.  Simultaneous is not limited in non-verbal content, as illustrated by the important role it plays in the grammatical components of language and

comprehension. Successive processing is important in the use of stimuli arranged in a specific serial order.

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