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PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION IN CHILDREN

PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION IN CHILDREN

Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) is a deficiency disease caused in the infants due to ‘Food Gap’ between the intake and requirement. It affects children under 5 years mostly belonging to the poor underprivileged communities. PEM is particularly serious during the post- weaning stage and is often associated with infection.

Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) in children:

  1. KWASHIORKOR: Kwashiorkor has a peak incidence in children aged 9 months to 2 years, the onset of malnutrition frequently coinciding with the period of weaning following a further pregnancy or the birth of a sibling. The diet is depleted of good protein but has a rough starch content. These babies are often referred to as ‘sugar babies’.

 

Clinical Manifestations of Kwashiorkor-

  1. Growth failure
  2. Wasting of muscles and preservation of subcutaneous fat.
  3. Edema (pitting type)
  4. Fatty liver.
  5. Psychomotor retardation( difficulty of walking)
  6. Loss of Appetite
  7. Lack  of interest in the surrounding

 

  1. Marasmus- Marasmus is characterized by severe  weight reduction and almost total absence of subcutaneous fat, but there are few  of the clinical stigmata of kwashiorkor. Many sufferers are under the age of 6 months and may have become marasmic from a variety of causes, including feeding mismanagement from birth.

 

Clinical manifestations of marasmus-

  1. Wasting of subcutaneous fat and muscles.
  2. Skin has some pigmentation or peeling skin lesions.
  3. Mood Swings
  4. Mild skin and hair changes
  5. More prone to infections
  6. Loss of intetest in her/his environment and inactivity.
  7. Moderate degree of anemia and other deficiencies are also there in the child.

Resource- Homescience book:Neeti Vaid Gera and Yuki Azaad Tomar

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