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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

You may observe many times that some children are hyperactive, impulsive and inattentive rather than their same age. These symptoms are often associated with Attention Deficit  Hyperactivity Disorder.

What is Attention  Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD)?

ADHD is a hyperkinetic disorder based on Maladaptively  high levels of impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. They are all based on observations about how children behave. "Impulsivity" signifies premature and thoughtless actions. 

"Hyperactivity" a restless and shifting excess of movement and "inattention" is disorganized style preventing sustained efforts. All are shown by the individual children to different extents and are influenced by context as well as by the constitution of the person.

Common problems associated with ADHD-

It is very common for the core problems of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in children to present together with other developmental impairments and/or mental health problems. As well as young people and adults may in addition show other associated problems such as self-harm, a predisposition to road traffic accidents, substance misuse, delinquency, anxiety states and academic underachievement.

Common problems associated with ADHD in children-

Non-compliant behavior

Sleep  Disturbance 

Aggression 

Temper tantrums 

Literacy and other learning problems 

Motor tics

Mood swings 

Unpopularity with peers

Clumsiness 

Immature language 

Some major symptoms  are-

Either A or B

A. Inattention – Six or more symptoms persisting for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level.

a) Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities.

b) Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities.

c) Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly

d) Often does not follow through on instructions; fails to finish schoolwork, chores or workplace duties (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions)

e) Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities

f) Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to do tasks requiring sustained mental effort.

g) Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities

Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli.

Is often forgetful in daily activities.

B. Hyperactivity-impulsivity – Six or more symptoms persisting for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level.

Hyperactivity Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat.

a) Often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations where remaining seated is expected

b) Often runs or climbs excessively where inappropriate (feelings of restlessness in young people or adults)

c) Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly Is often ‘on the go’ or often acts as if ‘driven by a motor’

d) Often talks excessively Impulsivity. 

e) Often blurts out answers before questions have been completed.

f) Often has difficulty awaiting turn.

g) Often interrupts or intrudes on others (for example, butts into conversations or games)

2. Some hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment

were present before age 7 years.

3. Some impairment from symptoms is present in two or more settings (for example, at school or work and at home).

4. There must be clear evidence of significant impairment in social, school or work functioning.

5. The symptoms do not happen only during the course of a pervasive develop mental disorder, schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder. 

The symptoms are-

not better accounted for by another mental disorder (for example, mood disorder, anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, or a personality disorder).

Often blurts out answers before questions have been completed

Often fails to wait in lines or await turns in games or group situations.

Often interrupts or intrudes on others (for example, butts into others’ conversations or games)

Often talks excessively without appropriate response to social constraints.

4. Onset of the disorder is no later than the age of 7 years.

5. Pervasiveness – The criteria should be met for more than a single situation,

for example, the combination of inattention and hyperactivity should be present both at home and at school, or at both school and another setting where children are observed, such as a clinic. (Evidence for cross-situationality will ordinarily require information from more than one source; parental reports about classroom behavior, for instance, is unlikely to be sufficient.)

6. The symptoms in 1 and 3 cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social,academic and Occupational functions. 

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