Breathing Related Sleep Disorders (Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea)

Breathing-Related Sleep Disorders

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea


Hypopnea is related to sleep apnea and is a part of the same family of sleep disorders. In hypopnea, there is a decrease of airflow for at least 10 seconds in respirations, a 30-percent reduction in ventilation, and a decrease in oxygen saturation. This decreases the amount of oxygen that is getting to your red blood cells.

Hypopnea often happens at night while you sleep, but it can also occur during the hours that you’re awake. There are two main types of hypopnea, but they are hard to distinguish clinically from apnea — when breathing stops completely. Apnea is thought of as:

  • Central sleep apnea: This is when your breathing is disrupted because of a disrupted respiratory effort.
  • Obstructive sleep apnea: Obstructive sleep apnea: This is when your breathing is disrupted because of a blocked or narrowed airway.

cause of hyponea 

The causes of hypopnea are similar to those of sleep apnea.

  • Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea is caused by the relaxation of your throat muscles while you’re asleep.
  • Central sleep apnea/hypopnea is caused by your brain failing to send the right signals to the muscles that allow you to breathe.

The risks can be slightly different for each type of hypopnea. The risk factors for obstructive hypopnea include:

  • the size of your neck
  • obesity
  • gender (it’s more common in men)
  • smoking
  • alcohol consumption
  • taking sedatives or sleep medication
  • age (it’s more common in middle-aged and older adults)
  • congested nasal passages
  • genetics (family history can play a role)

symptoms of sleep hypopnea.

The symptoms of sleep hypopnea include the following when they occur without another cause:

  • being unusually tired during the day
  • waking up from a full night’s sleep feeling tired
  • waking up choking
  • waking up often during the night
  • snoring loudly
  • waking up with a headache

Treatment of sleep hypopnea 

The treatment of sleep hypopnea depends somewhat on the cause and severity. However, there are treatment options that are commonly used. Again, the treatments for sleep hypopnea are similar to those of sleep apnea. Some of these treatments include:

  • continuous positive airway pressure therapy
  • removal of the obstruction or other surgery if applicable
  • a mechanism for your mouth that makes the airway larger or more stable

Lifestyle changes that your doctor may suggest you try as a part of your treatment include:

  • losing weight
  • consuming a healthy diet
  • giving up smoking
  • avoiding sleep medications or sedative medication
  • drinking less alcohol or stopping completely
  • changing your sleep position

If your hypopnea is mild, then lifestyle changes may be the only treatment necessary.

Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a more serious form of sleep apnea or sleep hypopnea. OSAHS is a chronic condition that requires ongoing management. Treatment is usually lifelong.

Diagnostic Criteria

A). either (1) or (2)

  1. Evidence by polysomnography of at least five obstructive apneas or hypopnea per hour of sleep and either of the following sleep symptoms:
  2. Nocturnal breathing disturbances: snoring, snoring/gasping, or breathing pauses during sleep.
  3. Daytime sleepiness, fatigue, or un refreshing  sleep despite sufficient opportunities to sleep that is not better explained by another mental disorder (including a sleep disorder) and is not attributed to another medical condition.

B). Evidence by polysomnorgraphy of 15 or more obstructive apneas and/or hypopneas per hour of sleep regardless of accompanying symptoms.

Specify current severity:

Mild: Apnea hypopnea index is less than 15.

Moderate: Apnea hypopnea index is 15-30

Sever: Apnea hypopnea index is greater than 30.

Reference :-

  • DSM-5 
  • some contant from internet
  •  Picture from internet